There was a drop in public sector spending at the start of the new economic reform program, and a large tax was imposed on the new sector.As a result, this reform initiative has resulted in a significant increase in commodity prices. Many industries are going down as a result of these circumstances, unemployment is rising, and Russians are becoming increasingly enraged.
Several regional elites, including Russian bureaucrats and businessmen, spoke out against President Boris Yeltsin's economic reform initiative during 1992. Meanwhile, Russia's vice president at the time, Alexander Rutsky, slammed President Yeltsin's economic reform agenda, calling it "economic slaughter." In such a tumultuous environment, Russia's two energy-rich republics, Baskiria and Tatarstan, have asked for independence.
In late 1991, the Russian Federation's Constitution was amended to grant President Boris Yeltsin a number of special powers, including the power to issue decrees. Yeltsin's extraordinary powers lasted until 1992. In such a case, President Yeltsin asked members of the Russian Federation's Supreme Soviet, the country's highest policy-making body, and the Congress of the People's Deputies, the country's highest legislative body, to extend the term of his special powers in order to fully implement the economic reform program. Members of the Russian Federation's Supreme Soviet are elected by members of the Russian Federation's Congress of People's Deputies, the highest legislative body elected by direct popular vote. However, by opposing Yeltsin's economic reform program.
Yeltsin accused the country's Congress of People's Deputies of impeding the government's economic reform efforts on December 10 of that year. President Yeltsin and Speaker of the Parliament Rushlan Kasbulatov reached an agreement on a number of measures aimed at ending the crisis on December 12th. They called for a referendum in April 1993 to design a new constitution, and they demanded that the president keep some of his special powers until the referendum. Viktor Chernomardin was nominated for Prime Minister by President Yeltsin on December 14, and the Russian parliament supported the nomination.
The president's and parliament's agreement did not last long. Tensions between the two sides arose in early 1993 about the referendum's content and the president's and parliament's power sharing. Speaker Ruslan Kasbulatov blasted the president at the commencement of the People's Deputies' eighth congress on March 10, the same year. He charged Yeltsin of performing his duties in a "unconstitutional" manner. The Congress of People's Deputies held its next session in mid-March. Members of the session decided to modify the constitution, divest President Yeltsin of some of his powers, and overturn the referendum held in April. President Yeltsin, on the other hand, refused to accept the parliament's conclusions. Meanwhile, Vladimir Shumeko, the country's Deputy Prime Minister, said The pre-scheduled referendum was held on April 25, 1993. This resulted in a clash between the president and the parliament. President Yeltsin accused members of the Congress of People's Deputies of attempting to recreate the Soviet-era economy in a televised address to the nation on March 20, and threatened to use his "special executive power" if necessary. Valery Zorkin, chairman of the Russian Federation's Constitutional Court, Valentin Stepankov, the country's prosecutor general, Yuri Voronin, chief vice chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation, and Alexander Rutsky, the country's vice president, delivered the statement. The warning was deemed "unconstitutional" by him. The impeachment resolution against President Yeltsin, which was filed on March 26 of that year, did not receive a two-thirds majority in the Senate. The People's Deputies' Ninth Congress. As a result, President Yeltsin was able to avoid being prosecuted.
On April 25th of that year, a referendum was held on President Yeltsin's popularity, support for his economic reform program, whether or not early presidential elections would be held, and whether or not the Congress of People's Deputies would hold early elections. If the referendum fails to garner the support of a majority of voters for the economic reform agenda, President Yeltsin has offered to quit. A majority of voters trusted President Yeltsin and backed his economic reform program, according to the referendum results. Simultaneously, a majority of voters opposed the plan to hold early presidential elections in the country, while they backed the Congress of People's Deputies holding early elections.
On April 29, 1993, President Yeltsin introduced a proposed constitution in a meeting with ministers and regional leaders. On May 1, when Yeltsin's opponents organized for an anti-government march, violence ensued. President Yeltsin called a special session of the Federation Council on May 12, 1990, to finalize the draft constitution, which began on May 12, 1990. Meanwhile, members of the Congress of People's Deputies collaborated to develop a new constitution, which differed from President Yeltsin's proposed constitution.
After consideration, members of the Federation Council endorsed President Yeltsin's draft constitution on July 12 of that year. Bicameral legislatures were established as a result of the adopted constitution, and the existing "Congress of People's Deputies" was abolished. In this case, the Russian Federation's Supreme Soviet rejects this clause of the Constitution and declares that the decision of the Congress, the People's Deputy, the country's highest legislative body, on the new constitution is definitive.
In July-August 1993, while President Yeltsin was on vacation, Parliament passed a number of resolutions opposing economic reform. Parliament even launched an investigation into allegations of corruption against Yeltsin's close advisers. At the end of August, President Yeltsin vowed to hold new parliamentary elections "at any cost." On September 1, he announced the dismissal of Russian Vice President Alexander Rutsky on corruption charges. On the other hand, on December 3, the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation rejected the announcement of the dismissal of Alexander Rutsky and sought the intervention of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. When President Yeltsin sealed Alexander Rutsky's room in the Kremlin's office, an office in the parliament building was allocated to Rutsky.
On September 21 of the same year, President Boris Yeltsin announced the dissolution of the "Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation" and the "Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation". However, the President's announcement of the abolition was in direct conflict with several articles of the 1978 Constitution of Russia. On September 22, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation ruled that President Yeltsin could be prosecuted for violating the Constitution. Following a decision by the Constitutional Court, members of parliament chaired by Speaker Ruslan Kasbulatov overnight announced President Yeltsin's "Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation" and "Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation". At the same time, Vice President Alexander Rutskoy was announced as interim president until a new president is elected at that session. Meanwhile, shortly after Rutsky took over as interim president, Yeltsin fired Defense Minister Pavel Grachev, Security Minister Nikorai Golasco, and Interior Minister Victor Yerin. In such a crisis situation, there were virtually two governments in Russia.
On September 23 of that year, the Congress of People's Deputies took the initiative to finally impeach Yeltsin. On the same day, Yeltsin announced the presidential election in June 1994. On September 24, members of the Congress of People's Deputies announced the date for the simultaneous election of the President and Parliament in March 1994. In response to the decision of the Congress of People's Deputies on September 25, President Yeltsin ordered the power and telephone connections to the parliament building and the hot water supply to be cut off. Almost tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets of the capital, Moscow, to protest the disruption of parliament and the deterioration of living standards.
On September 26, Yeltsin's opponents clashed with special police forces. On the same day, the Russian Interior Ministry took the initiative to seal off the parliament building. Meanwhile, on October 1, the country's Interior Ministry feared that about 800 armed youths had entered the Russian parliament building to join Yeltsin's opponents. In such a situation, the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church tried to reach an agreement with the President and the members of Parliament, but the initiative failed. On the afternoon of October 3, armed youths opposed to President Yeltsin crossed the police barricade in front of the Russian parliament building, and Alexander Rutsky, who was stationed in the parliament building, rallied against the armed youths to seize the city mayor's office and the country's national television office. Call for At around 4 pm, President Yeltsin declared a state of emergency in Moscow. Yeltsin's armed opposition, led by Colonel General Albert Makasov, stormed the country's national television office on the evening of October 3, after taking control of the mayor's office. At least 48 people were killed in the clashes, according to official figures, and armed youths opposed to the president were forced to flee.
In response to President Yeltsin's call for an end to the ongoing standoff, the Russian military began to siege the country's parliament building on the morning of October 4, and within hours, the army shelled the upper floors of what was known as the White House. Troops entered the White House around noon and began searching each floor, and protesters were evacuated from the highway by the afternoon. At least 101 people, including members of the military, have been killed in clashes across the White House, according to official figures. Thus, under the direction of President Boris Yeltsin, full control of the overall situation passed to the Russian military.
Within weeks of taking control of the White House, President Yeltsin consolidated his powers by issuing several decrees. On October 15, 2013, Alexander Rutsky, the ousted vice president, and Ruslan Kasbulatov, the speaker of parliament, were charged with "disorderly conduct" on October 15 of that year, and were sent to prison. However, they were later released on parole.
On December 12, 1993, Russia held a constitutional referendum. The new constitution was approved on the basis of the decision of the referendum, which came into force on December 25th. The new constitution gives the Russian president significant powers, and the powers of parliament are determined. Russia's constitutional crisis has been overcome by the implementation of this constitution.